The gallbladder (Latin Vesica fellea) is one of the organs involved in digestion. It stores bile fluid and releases it into the duodenum when needed. However, the bile is not produced in the gallbladder itself, but by the liver. Through the hepatic duct, which allows a connection between the liver and the gallbladder, the thick liquid reaches the hollow organ.
As soon as food reaches the small intestine, the gall bladder spills gallbladder into the duodenum. Every day the liver produces about 1000 ml of the digestive liquid, which plays a central role in the digestion of fat. In order for lipases (enzymes that break down fat) to break down fat more efficiently into smaller fatty acids that can be absorbed by the body, bile at the first decomposition helps.
Besides, gallbladder provides neutralization of gastric acid. With a pH of 2 (extremely acidic), gastric acid would deplete the intestine. The slightly alkaline bile (pH value: 8) does not neutralize the stomach acid, but allows the pH to rise. In addition, the body disposes of the yellow-green to brownish bile fluid also of metabolic end products, i.a. Bilirubin, a decomposition product of a blood dye hemoglobin.
Structure / anatomy of the gallbladder
The oblong-shaped gallbladder lies below the liver. On average, the organ is about 8cm long and 4cm wide, which may vary individually.
The gallbladder reaches the gall-bladder via the hepatic duct. Either the bile is now stored in a gall bladder, or it is given directly about a main bile duct in a duodenum as bile has only a maximum of 80-100ml storage capacity. At the neck of the gall bladder, the mucosal fold closes the outlet, allowing a controlled release. Only when food passes the small intestine does bile flow out of the bladder. The common bile duct then joins with the exit of the pancreas in the duodenum.
The gallbladder can be anatomically divided into gallbladder neck, gallbladder body and gallbladder floor. The gallbladder extracts water from the bile through the cell walls (thickening), meaning that significantly more highly concentrated bile can be stored.